Advanced packaging technology has become a powerful tool for TSMC to grab orders for advanced chips. Now Samsung Electronics has also announced that it will strengthen its back-end packaging and testing technology. As for the top 10 makers in the packaging and testing industry, their revenue in 2021 reached US$33.7 billion. And the top-10 accounted for about 90% of the global packaging and testing industry, so the size of this market was about US$37 billion. Including back-end production of TSMC, Samsung, Intel and even Rohm, the output value of the whole industry wuld be about US$39.7 billion.
There is no doubt that semiconductors will be everywhere in the world in the future, and semiconductors are already a very important strategic industry for industrial countries. Taiwan, a top semiconductor-producing country in the world, has an unprecedented opportunity to upgrade its industry while facing strong competitive pressure. Other countries coveting Taiwan's industrial resources will provide at least some incentives, but in the process of bringing Taiwan's industrial strength to its fullest potential, we must also understand the various challenges we may face.
As global warming receives global attention, curbing greenhouse gas is both a responsibility and pressue for companies. This pressure, which promises to gradually become cost and risk in the future, is now an important part of a company's business strategy. TSMC's senior vice president for Europe and Asia, Lora Ho, is the chair of the company's ESG committee. Ho is a former chief financial officer and is very familiar with cost structures and business conditions, which I think is why she was appointed to this important position.
Foxconn founder Terry Kuo has said that in the future, there will be only G2 (the US and China), not G20 in the world. The ideological battle will probably force all manufacturers to take sides or lay out more diversified production ecosystems, and the labor force and potential markets in ASEAN and South Asia will become the best choice for industry players. To avoid becoming casualties in the conflict between the two superpowers, the best strategy is to create a third battlefield that the G2 needs. The current industry structure does have the opportunity to allow Japanese, South Korean and Taiwanese manufacturers to find more space in emerging markets.
Of the top 100 supply chain companies in Asia, 96 of them are from Japan, China, Taiwan and South Korea, and they are core surces of influence on the supply chain in Asia. However, these companies are facing the problem of low gross profit, but the problem of low gross profit differs from country to country, and the profit structure of different fields also shows the difference of competitiveness of each country, and the methods and strategies they rely on to adjust the industry structure.
Research organizations win the trust of society and industry players with their credible research. In 1985, when I first started my career in industry research, I went to Taiwan's customs every month to check the export reports of electronic products, and the statistics I compiled became a very important reference for the industry at that time.
Kyoto-based Rohm Semiconductor and Taipei-based Delta Electronics are both benchmarks in the application of renewable energy. It is a common goal of the world that net-zero emissions will be achieved by 2050, and Kazuhide Ino, managing executive director of Rohm, calls for upstream and downstream cooperation to address such issues.
Many years ago, when Tesla came to Taiwan looking for technical cooperation, and Delta Electronics was one of the key partners. Later, Delta expanded its layout to include charging piles, and Rohm has proposed solutions to improve efficiency, with the pair expanding cooperation from traditional power supplies to EV applications.
The strategic partnerships between Taiwan and Japanese companies have been heating up during the epidemic. In the past, the Japanese always prioritized the needs of Japanese companies, but with the mature development of Taiwan's supply chain, Japanese companies are not only knocking on the door, but are also sending personnel to Taiwan to serve somewhat as product managers for better communication. With such developments, Taiwan-based companies have seen concrete progress in both automotive electronics and compound semiconductors.
According to the top management of a cetain components distributor, 2022 will definitely be the year of dynamic management, which will not only be a short-term strategy, but may even become the new normal. First of all, we have to understand that a decentralized production mechanism is taking shape. In the future, the production bases in China will not be the only ones producing handsets, notebooks and servers; Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, India and Indonesia will also be the focus of everyone's attention. Therefore who will be responsible for managing components inventory and logistics?
In 2022, geopolitics, tight supply chains, inflation, and pandemic are the four major variables affecting the international economic and trade environment. Of the four, geopolitics is the most critical, and the tight supply chain is most closely related to Taiwan's electronics industry.
Taiwan and South Korea, both strong in high-tech industries, saw their exports increase by 29.4% and 25.8% annually respectively in 2021. Korean Airlines, China Airlines, and EVA Air led the recovery in 2021 by becoming the world's three most profitable airlines with up to 95% of cargo revenue. With the wave of globalization that began in the 1970s, East Asian countries with long experience in efficiency and high education levels have become an indispensable link in the global supply chain.
In terms of weight, more than 90% of the world's transnational trade and transport relies on maritime transport, with the rest being mostly transnational land transport, and air transport accounting for only 0.21%. However, the high unit price and efficiency of air transport accounts for 26% of global trade. In 2021, Taiwan air transport in terms of weight accounted for only 0.23% its imports and exports, but because of the contribution of high-tech, semiconductor products, Taiwan saw 47% of the total value its imports and exports came through air tansport in 2021.
Since the beginning of 2022, we've seen weakening end market demand. The global notebok market increased from 158 million units in 2019 to 246 million units in 2021, and it's natural that the market may not continue to expand in 2022. According to DIGITIMES Research's latest report, global smartphone shipments in the first quarter of 2022 reached 319 million units, down 7.2% annually, and the annual growth rate for the whole of 2022 is likely to be only 3.1%.
Before commenting on the intrinsic strength of China's semiconductor industry, we must have an elaborate study on China's semiconductor market and industrial structure. According to Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA), the total output of the global semiconductor market in 2021 was US$555.9 billion, up 26.2% from 2022, of which US$192.5 billion was generated from the Chinese market, accounting for 34.6% of the global total. However, this figure refers to the sales to local Chinese companies plus sales into China's domestic market, excluding the demand brought by foreign companies assembling diver products such as notebooks and mobile phones in China.
The semiconductor industry with a sophisticated division of labor has seen a rapid evolution over more than 60 years, during which the global capital market also has played a key role. The industry's development is a very complicated one, from either a political or economic point of view.